Identify this unusually-shaped, orange-colored fruit that grows in pairs?

Identify this unusually-shaped, orange-colored fruit that grows in pairs?

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The photos below were taken on the island of Penghu in the Taiwan straight in October. This was in a public place and the small tree (about 3 meters tall, trunk perhaps 8 to 10 cm diameter) had probably been planted, so we can't presume it to be indigenous.

Each fruit was about 6 or 7 cm long, the skin was bright orange and seemed a bit waxy. The shape was a little bit like a banana-shaped American football in that it was divided into four quadrants. They attach to a stem in pairs and extend horizontally (sideways) rather than hang down.

Question: What could this gravity defying fruit-bearing tree be?

The first image is cropped, zoomed and sharpened in order to highlight textures.

The seed pods reminded me of the Apocynaceae, so I searched for "apocynaceae china" and found this University of Hawaii page where it is identified as Stemmadenia litoralis. However, a little more looking it seems Tabernaemontana litoralis may be the preferred name. There is some debate here. This book may hold the final answer regarding the genus.

Your picture of the fruit is one of the best one I could find on the internet. There is another good one here with other pictures of the plant.

You were also correct that as a planted tree it might not be native. This plant comes from Central America.


Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Orange, any of several species of small trees or shrubs of the genus Citrus of the family Rutaceae and their nearly round fruits, which have leathery and oily rinds and edible, juicy inner flesh. A number of species and varieties of orange are economically important, namely the China orange, also called the sweet, or common, orange (Citrus ×sinensis) the mandarin orange (C. reticulata), some varieties of which are called tangerines and the sour, or Seville, orange (C. ×aurantium), which is less extensively grown. Common varieties of the sweet orange include the Jaffa, from Israel, the seedless navel, and the Maltese, or blood, orange.


All citrus trees belong to the single genus Citrus and remain almost entirely interfertile. This includes grapefruits, lemons, limes, oranges, and various other types and hybrids. As the interfertility of oranges and other citrus has produced numerous hybrids and cultivars, and bud mutations have also been selected, citrus taxonomy is fairly controversial, confusing or inconsistent. [12] [14] The fruit of any citrus tree is considered a hesperidium, a kind of modified berry it is covered by a rind originated by a rugged thickening of the ovary wall. [15] [16]

Different names have been given to the many varieties of the species. Orange applies primarily to the sweet orange – Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. The orange tree is an evergreen, flowering tree, with an average height of 9 to 10 m (30 to 33 ft), although some very old specimens can reach 15 m (49 ft). [17] Its oval leaves, alternately arranged, are 4 to 10 cm (1.6 to 3.9 in) long and have crenulate margins. [18] Sweet oranges grow in a range of different sizes, and shapes varying from spherical to oblong. Inside and attached to the rind is a porous white tissue, the white, bitter mesocarp or albedo (pith). [19] The orange contains a number of distinct carpels (segments) inside, typically about ten, each delimited by a membrane, and containing many juice-filled vesicles and usually a few seeds (pips). [20] When unripe, the fruit is green. The grainy irregular rind of the ripe fruit can range from bright orange to yellow-orange, but frequently retains green patches or, under warm climate conditions, remains entirely green. Like all other citrus fruits, the sweet orange is non-climacteric. The Citrus sinensis group is subdivided into four classes with distinct characteristics: common oranges, blood or pigmented oranges, navel oranges, and acidless oranges. [21] [22] [23]

Other citrus groups also known as oranges are:

    (Citrus reticulata) is an original species of citrus, and is a progenitor of the common orange. (Citrus aurantium), also known as Seville orange, sour orange (especially when used as rootstock for a sweet orange tree), bigarade orange and marmalade orange. Like the sweet orange, it is a pomelo x mandarin hybrid, but arose from a distinct hybridization event. [24] (Citrus bergamia Risso), grown mainly in Italy for its peel, producing a primary essence for perfumes, also used to flavor Earl Grey tea. It is a hybrid of bitter orange x lemon. [25] (Poncirus trifoliata), sometimes included in the genus (classified as Citrus trifoliata). It often serves as a rootstock for sweet orange trees and other Citruscultivars. [26]

An enormous number of cultivars have, like the sweet orange, a mix of pomelo and mandarin ancestry. Some cultivars are mandarin-pomelo hybrids, bred from the same parents as the sweet orange (e.g. the tangor and ponkan tangerine). Other cultivars are sweet orange x mandarin hybrids (e.g. clementines). Mandarin traits generally include being smaller and oblate, easier to peel, and less acidic. [27] Pomelo traits include a thick white albedo (rind pith, mesocarp) that is more closely attached to the segments.

Orange trees generally are grafted. The bottom of the tree, including the roots and trunk, is called rootstock, while the fruit-bearing top has two different names: budwood (when referring to the process of grafting) and scion (when mentioning the variety of orange). [28]

The word orange derives from the Sanskrit word for "orange tree" (नारङ्ग nāraṅga), which in turn derives from a Dravidian root word (compare நரந்தம்/നാരങ്ങ narandam/naranja which refers to Bitter orange in Tamil and Malayalam). [29] The Sanskrit word reached European languages through Persian نارنگ (nārang) and its Arabic derivative نارنج (nāranj).

The word entered Late Middle English in the fourteenth century via Old French orenge (in the phrase pomme d'orenge). [30] The French word, in turn, comes from Old Provençal auranja, based on Arabic nāranj. [29] In several languages, the initial n present in earlier forms of the word dropped off because it may have been mistaken as part of an indefinite article ending in an n sound—in French, for example, une norenge may have been heard as une orenge. This linguistic change is called juncture loss. The color was named after the fruit, [31] and the first recorded use of orange as a color name in English was in 1512. [32] [33]

As Portuguese merchants were presumably the first to introduce the sweet orange to some regions of Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them. Some examples are Albanian portokall, Bulgarian портокал (portokal), Greek πορτοκάλι (portokali), Macedonian portokal, Persian پرتقال (porteghal), Turkish portakal and Romanian portocală. [34] [35] Related names can be found in other languages, such as Arabic البرتقال (bourtouqal), Georgian ფორთოხალი (pʰortʰoxali) and Amharic birtukan. [34] Also, in some of the Italian regional languages (e.g. Neapolitan), an orange is portogallo or purtuallo, literally "(the) Portuguese (one)", in contrast to the Italian arancia.

In other Indo-European languages, the words for orange allude to the eastern origin of the fruit and can be translated literally as "apple from China". Some examples are German Apfelsine (alternative name for Orange and common in northern Germany), Dutch appelsien and sinaasappel, Swedish apelsin, Russian апельсин (apelsin) and Norwegian appelsin. [35] A similar case is Puerto Rican Spanish china. [36] [37]

Various Slavic languages use the variants pomaranč (Slovak), pomeranč (Czech), pomaranča (Slovene), and pomarańcza (Polish), all from Old French pomme d'orenge. [38] [39]

The sweet orange is not a wild fruit, [17] having arisen in domestication from a cross between a non-pure mandarin orange and a hybrid pomelo that had a substantial mandarin component. Since its chloroplast DNA is that of pomelo, it was likely the hybrid pomelo, perhaps a BC1 pomelo backcross, that was the maternal parent of the first orange. [7] [40] Based on genomic analysis, the relative proportions of the ancestral species in the sweet orange is approximately 42% pomelo and 58% mandarin. [41] All varieties of the sweet orange descend from this original cross, differing only by mutations selected for during agricultural propagation. [40] Sweet oranges have a distinct origin from the bitter orange, which arose independently, perhaps in the wild, from a cross between pure mandarin and pomelo parents. [40] The earliest mention of the sweet orange in Chinese literature dates from 314 B.C. [2]

In Europe, the Moors introduced the orange to the Iberian Peninsula which was known as Al-Andalus, with large scale cultivation starting in the 10th century as evidenced by complex irrigation techniques specifically adapted to support orange orchards. [42] Citrus fruits — among them the bitter orange — were introduced to Sicily in the 9th century during the period of the Emirate of Sicily, but the sweet orange was unknown until the late 15th century or the beginnings of the 16th century, when Italian and Portuguese merchants brought orange trees into the Mediterranean area. [10] Shortly afterward, the sweet orange quickly was adopted as an edible fruit. It also was considered a luxury item and wealthy people grew oranges in private conservatories, called orangeries. By 1646, the sweet orange was well known throughout Europe. [10] Louis XIV of France had a great love of orange trees, and built the grandest of all royal Orangeries at the Palace of Versailles. [43] At Versailles potted orange trees in solid silver tubs were placed throughout the rooms of the palace, while the Orangerie allowed year-round cultivation of the fruit to supply the court. When Louis condemned his finance minister, Nicolas Fouquet, in 1664, part of the treasures which he confiscated were over 1,000 orange trees from Fouquet's estate at Vaux-le-Vicomte. [44]

Spanish travelers introduced the sweet orange into the American continent. On his second voyage in 1493, Christopher Columbus may have planted the fruit in Hispaniola. [45] Subsequent expeditions in the mid-1500s brought sweet oranges to South America and Mexico, and to Florida in 1565, when Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founded St Augustine. Spanish missionaries brought orange trees to Arizona between 1707 and 1710, while the Franciscans did the same in San Diego, California, in 1769. [10] An orchard was planted at the San Gabriel Mission around 1804 and a commercial orchard was established in 1841 near present-day Los Angeles. In Louisiana, oranges were probably introduced by French explorers.

Archibald Menzies, the botanist and naturalist on the Vancouver Expedition, collected orange seeds in South Africa, raised the seedlings onboard and gave them to several Hawaiian chiefs in 1792. Eventually, the sweet orange was grown in wide areas of the Hawaiian Islands, but its cultivation stopped after the arrival of the Mediterranean fruit fly in the early 1900s. [10] [46]

As oranges are rich in vitamin C and do not spoil easily, during the Age of Discovery, Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch sailors planted citrus trees along trade routes to prevent scurvy.

Florida farmers obtained seeds from New Orleans around 1872, after which orange groves were established by grafting the sweet orange on to sour orange rootstocks. [10]

Recognizing Insect Larval Types

Insects develop from egg to adult in a process called metamorphosis which may be generally classified as either gradual or complete. Gradual metamorphosis has three stages – egg, nymph, and adult. Nymphs generally look much like their adult stage except for being smaller and lacking wings, if the species has winged adults. Common examples include stink bugs, grasshoppers, and cockroaches.

About 75% of all insect species go through the four stages of complete metamorphosis - egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The larva is a specialized feeding stage that looks very different from the adult. Fortunately, there are just a few basic larval types and they are relatively easy to recognize. Often, insect identification must be based on the larval stage because no adults are present. Being able to recognize larval types can tell you a lot about the insect, For example, is it a plant feeder, predator, or a scavenger? Are any management or control practices necessary? This publication is designed to help you to follow a series of choices in a process to recognize the basic type of the insect that you have.

Insect Metamorphosis: Gradual (left) and Complete (right)
  • Head – usually a dark, often hard capsule at front of body. It may be partly covered by the thorax. In some larvae, a hard or distinct head may be absent or completely hidden.
  • Thorax – three segments immediately behind the head. A pair of segmented legs usually is attached to each. These segments may be fused together rather than being separate and distinct.
  • Abdomen - eight to 10 body segments immediately following the thorax.
  • Segmented thoracic legs – three pairs of segmented or
    jointed legs that are found on the body segments immediately behind the head.
  • Fleshy legs - usually short, often paired, unsegmented extensions from the underside of the abdomen that are used for movement.

This key is like a path with a series of forks along the way. A choice is made at each fork that will send you toward an answer. The end point will be a drawing of one of the common larval types that should resemble your specimen.

Start- The first decision along the identification path is whether or not the larva has segmented thoracic legs. If it does, you stay on the first section of the key. If it does not, then go to the second page.

SECTION 1: Larvae with segmented thoracic legs and fleshy prolegs

Look at the abdomen for relatively distinct pairs of fleshy legs. Caterpillars (Order Lepidoptera) are immature stages of butterflies and moths they have 5 or fewer pairs (Box 1). These plant feeders have chewing mouthparts. Often, caterpillars have “hairs”, spines, or distinct coloring. Those with 4 or fewer pairs of these legs are called “loopers” or “inchworms” because of the distinctive way that they crawl.

Larvae with pairs of fleshy legs on all abdominal segments (Box 2) are called sawflies (Order Hymenoptera). They often occur in groups on deciduous trees or evergreens.

Larvae with segmented thoracic legs but no fleshy prolegs
Larval types with segmented thoracic legs but no fleshy abdominal legs are shown in Boxes 3 and 4. These types are found in many species of beetles (Coleoptera) and some lacewings (Neuroptera) The decision at this point is more subjective. Larvae with relatively long thoracic legs and a relatively streamlined, often pointed bodies are shown in Box 3. These predators are active crawlers that hunt prey. Usually, they have a relatively flat heads and prominent forward-pointing jaws. Examples are a) lacewing, b) lady beetle, and c) ground beetle.

Larvae in Box 4 have shorter, thicker thoracic legs, a more box-shaped head, and wider abdomen. They can crawl but tend to be slow and deliberate. Soft, white bodied forms, like the white grub and rootworm, live in protected places while leaf feeders and scavengers tend to have harder, more protected bodies. White grubs (a) often occur in soil, decaying organic matter, rotting logs, etc. Wireworms (b) have hard, cylindrical, bodies. Many species live in soil feeding on seeds or roots or in decaying wood. Rootworm larvae (c) live in the soil and feed on plant roots. Leaf beetle larvae (d), like that of the Colorado potato beetle, resemble caterpillars without fleshy abdominal legs. They feed exposed on foliage. Hairy carpet beetle larva (e) are scavengers that feed on plant and animal products. They may be found in stored products or natural fibers, such as cotton or wool.

Picture Key to Larval Insect Types: Section 1 ( click for larger picture )

SECTION 2: Larvae with no segmented thoracic legs

These are highly specialized larvae most live in water, soil, wood, or in decaying organic matter. Some species have distinct, usually dark heads while others do not.

Legless larvae with distinct heads
Most of these larvae are beetles or flies (Diptera). Each of the pictures represents a larval type.

5 – Weevil grubs can be found in plants, plant tips, seeds, nuts, or with plant roots in the soil. The underside usually is flat while the upper side is rounded, giving them a humpbacked appearance.

6- Midge larvae occur in water or moist organic litter. There is a single fleshy leg at the front and back of the body. They are the immature stages of varies species of gnats.

7- Mosquito larvae (wiggler) are very distinctive. The thorax is wider than the abdomen and many species have a distinct air tube at the end of the abdomen. These larvae live in still water.

8 – Drain fly larva have narrow, strap-like plates across the upper surface. They live in standing,
stagnant water, and especially seldom used drains.

9 – Fungus gnat larvae resemble midge larvae but do not have fleshy legs. They live in moist, decaying
organic matter, especially accumulations of fallen leaves or dead grass.

10 – Soldier fly larva has a flat, gray, palm-shaped body with a distinct tapered head the protrudes from
the front. They are common in compost piles and decaying organic matter.

Head mostly hidden or no distinct head
These larvae either do not have distinct visible heads or the head is withdrawn almost completely into the thorax. They are fly larvae that with one exception live in wet or moist areas.

11 – Crane fly larvae often have fleshy lobes at end of their abdomens. The distinct head is completely hidden within the thorax. These dingy gray larvae live in decaying organic matter.

12 – Rat-tailed maggots have long distinct tails that are extensible breathing tubes which allow them to live in very stagnant water.

13 – Flatheaded wood borers have a distinct wide area behind their heads and a long white, soft body. The dark head is withdrawn into the thorax but part of it usually is visible. These borers live in tree limbs, branches, and stems.

14 – Roundheaded wood borers are similar to flatheaded borers but do not have the wide area behind the head.

15 – Fly maggots have no head and a cream to white body that is distinctly tapered at head and blunt at the rear. Many flies have this larval type including blow flies, house flies, and fruit flies.

16 – Aphid predator maggots are headless, they tend to have green tinged bodies and are found wandering on leaf surfaces where they feed on aphids. They are good crawlers and resemble small caterpillars but lack a distinct head and legs of any sort.

Picture Key to Larval Insect Types: Section 2 ( click for larger picture )

There are thousands of variations of these basic forms but it is usually possible recognize its basic features and to place the specimen in one of the main groups. Help with larval identification is available thru your local Cooperative Extension office.

Life cycle drawings are from:
Virginia Tech - Department of Entomology
University of New Mexico - Entomology

CAUTION! Pesticide recommendations in this publication are registered for use in Kentucky, USA ONLY! The use of some products may not be legal in your state or country. Please check with your local county agent or regulatory official before using any pesticide mentioned in this publication.


25 Varieties of Melons (with Pictures)

Melon is a delicious fruit packed with nutrition. The term “melon” diversed in many different plants belong to the family Cucurbitaceae. Containing niacin, vitamin A, B6, C, potassium and their high water content, make it an excellence diuretic. Many species of melons are found, but they belong to four genera: Momordica, Benincasa, Citrulus, and Cucumis. Melons are usually fresh consumed, or used in juice, desserts, fruit salads, or custards. Melons are also comes in varieties. Here are the lists of melon varieties:

1. Watermelon

Types of melon – Watermelon. Image :

It’s a vine-like, flowering plant. It has a thick green skin along with a yellow, red, or orange fleshy center. Watermelon has rich in water content. They can grow into maximum around 90 kg. It is one of the most popular types of melons.

2. Cantaloupe Melon

Types of melon – Cantaloupe Melon. Image :

Cantaloupe is the most famous melon, especially in the US. Cantaloupe usually served as a fruit salad, a dessert with ice cream or custard. Its size ranges from 500 g to 5 kg.

3. Horned Melon

Types of melon – Horned Melon. Image :

This melon has unique horned skin. The taste is tart-like, a combination between and zucchini and cucumber. It has lime-green flesh and yellow-orange skin.

4. Crenshaw Melon

Types of melon – Crenshaw Melon

Curcumismelo is their Latin family’s name. It’s a hybrid type of melon with a sweet, juicy orange flesh. It’s ovoid in shape and greenish-yellow skin. This variety is very popular.

5. Honeydew

Types of melon – Honeydew Melon. Image :

It has sweet and juicy taste. Honeydew is popular well known fruit as a dessert ingredient. Its color is pale green and has a very smooth skin. The shape is round, sometimes oval, weighing from 1.5-4 kg.

6. Gac

Types of melon – Gac Melon. Image : Wikipedia

This is the Southeast Asian primary fruit. Unfortunately, Gac has limited stock due to their short harvest season. Gac’s seeds are rich in flavor and usually cooked with rice in Vietnam. Gac also has high nutrients that are famous beyond Asia.

7. Bitter Melon

Types of melon – Bitter Melon. Image :

It’s called ”pare” in Indonesia. It is originated in Indian subcontinent. Bitter melon is vine grown in Carribbean, Africa and Asia. It has a very bitter taste, usually eaten as vegetable.

8. Winter Melon

Types of melon – Winter Melon

This variety didn’t grow in Arctic continent. It originated in Southeast Asia. It has very large fruits. They can grow up to 85 cm long. Winter melon is cultivated in South and East part of Asia nowadays.

9. Sprite Melon

Types of melon – Sprite Melon. Image : Wikipedia

Japan is the birthplace of this variety. It contains seeds and has a round shape. Sprite melon is 25-35% sweeter than the other melons. It has ivory skin and color. Sprite Melon develops brown markings when ripe.

10. Korean Melon

Types of melon – Korean Melon

It grows 10cm long and less than one kilogram. Korean melon is smaller than the other melons. It has white color flesh and unique flavor. The outer skin is yellow and white stripes along its length. It can be eaten at once.

11. Canary Melon

Types of melon – Canary Melon

The skin is as bright as a canary bird. It is a huge and bright yellow melon. It has elongated shape with pale green or white flesh. The taste is prominently sweet. It’s a popular fruit for a snack or dessert.

12. Charentais Melon

Types of melon – Charentais Melon

This is fragrant type of cantaloupe. It was grown in France in 1920. Now it’s produced in North Africa on a large scale. Charentais Melon has also being produced in the US, although it’s limited.

13. Bailan Melon

Types of melon – Bailan Melon

It’s grown near Lanzhou, the capital city of Gansu province. Bailan melon is very popular in China. It has similiarities in appearance with honeydew.

14. Hami Melon

Types of melon – Hami Melon

Hami melon originated from Hami, Xinjiang. It has a crisp and very sweet flesh. The skin is white but usually yellow or greenish as well.

15. Santa Claus Melon

Types of melon – Santa Claus Melon

It has a thick and green-striped outer rind. It’s usually eaten for breakfast, lunch and dinner. The taste is as sweet as cantaloupe. Ho, ho, ho, this variety is definitely suitable for your Christmas dinner.

16. Sky Rocket

Types of melon – Sky Rocket Melon

The weight of this variety can go up to 3 kg. The shape of this melon is round, and the skin color is webbed green and yellow. The flesh of sky rocket melon is really sweet and fresh. The texture of this variety is chewy. Sky rocket melon need 65 days to be harvested.

17. Golden Langkawi Melon

Types of melon – Golden Langkawi melon

Golden Langkawi Melon is a superior melon variety. This delicious fruit is originated from Langkawi, Malaysia. The characteristics of Golden Langkawi Melon are from their golden skin, smoother skin surfaces unlike the other melon variety that have webbed skin. The shape of golden Langkawi melon is a little bit elliptical. The flesh texture of Golden Langkawi Melon is crunchier, high in sugar rate and rich in water content. This melon variety can weigh up to 3 kg. Another useful thing from this melon variety is, their short period of harvest time. Golden Langkawi Melon can also be planted in many plantation media such as pollybag and plastic pot so this melon variety can save up the space on your field.

18. Apollo

Types of melon – Apollo Melon

Another delicious variety of melon is named Apollo. Apollo is a little bit similar with Golden Langkawi Melon but the difference can be distinguished from the skin surface. The skin on Apollo melon has webbed sketch and brighter color. The taste of this melon variety is also sweet, fresh, and fibreless texture. The water content inside Apollo melon is abundant. Therefore, this melon variety is also the most popular melon variety.

19. Honey Globe

Types of melon – Honey Globe Melon

This one is also categorized into superior quality melon. The characteristic of Honey Globe melon is round, the skin color is green, and webbed skin surface. Honey Globe Melon can weigh up to 4 kg. The flesh is thick, watery, and the taste is sweet due to the 17%-19% of natural sugar amount. The texture of this melon flesh is tender and chewable. Another advantage from this melon is their short period of plantation. The stem of Honey Globe melon is also strong enough to carry its fruit. However, this kind of melon needs a special treatment and preparation in order to get desired result.

20. Autumn Sweet

Types of melon – Autumn Sweet Melon

Another delicious melon variety is Autumn Sweet. Autumn Sweet melon is fully round in shape weigh up to 1,3 kg. The skin surfaces of Autumn Sweet melon is golden yellow and the flesh is white. The taste of this melon variety is sweet and the texture is watery yet tender.

21. Sky Rocket

Types of melon – Sky Rocket Melon

This one is another popular variety of melon. The shape of Select Rocket melon is slightly similar with Sky Rocket. The seed of Select Rocket Melon is actually comes from Sky Rocket melon which is repackaged in New Zealand. Select Rocket melon is usually planted if Sky Rocket is unavailable at the markets. Although they are similar, some of the melon farmer said that Sky Rocket melon much more favorite rather than select rocket melon.

22. Jade Dew

Types of melon – Jade Dew Melon

Alright, here is another variety of delicious melon named Jade Dew. Jade Dew melon has round in shape and weighs up to 2 kg. The skin surface of Jade Dew is semi-webbed and the color is greenish white. The flesh of Jade Dew melon is milky yellow in color and the taste is sweet and the texture is crunchy. Another useful aspect from Jade Dew melon is, this melon variety is resistance to various viruses and plant diseases. Jade Dew melon usually planted on highland.

23. Golden Prize

Types of melon – Golden Prize Melon

The shape of Golden Prize Melon is slightly elliptical. The skin surface of this melon variety is rough and it has yellow in color. The flesh of Golden Prize melon is fresh orange and the taste is sweet. The texture of Golden Prize melon is crunchy and succulent. The skin of Golden Prize melon is relatively thick and due to the skin thickness, this melon variety can be kept in some period of time. Therefore, Golden Prize melon is the favorite fruit especially for the exporter.

24. Ten Me

Types of melon – Ten Me Melon

This variety of melon is known as the most expensive and the highest quality among all of the melons. The weight of Ten Me melon can go up to 4 kg. The skin surface is white and yellow and smooth webbed skin. The flesh is thick, tender, fragrant and the taste is super duper sweet.

25. New Century

Types of melon – New Century Melon

New Century melon shape is elliptical. The skin is yellow with thin web on it. The flesh is thick, orange colored, the taste is really sweet and the texture is crunchy. New Century melon is originated from Taiwan. This variety of melon is also resistance to viruses and plant diseases. The average weigh of this fruit is 1.5 kg and the maximum weight of this melon can go up to 4 kg. New Century melon is abundantly planted to sell on the modern markets or grand hotels.

Why go artificial?

Why bother with artificial, or synthetic, food colorings? Aren’t there enough natural colors to go around? A big reason to go artificial is cost. Synthetic dyes can be mass-produced at a fraction of the cost of gathering and processing the materials used to make natural colorings.

Another reason is shelf life. Artificial dyes might be longer-lasting than natural ones of the same color. Also, although nature produces an impressive hue of colors, those suitable for use as a food dye are limited. But there is no limit to the variety of colors that can be artificially produced in a lab. Considering the thousands of different substances that color our food, it may come as a surprise to discover that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted approval to just seven synthetic food colorings for widespread use in food. These food colorings are summarized in Table 1.

Food Colorings

Click image to enlarge

Table 1. Food colorings approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FD&C stands for laws passed by the U.S. Congress in 1938, called the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Artificial food colorings were originally manufactured from coal tar, which comes from coal. Early critics of artificial food colorings were quick to point this out. Today, most synthetic food dyes are derived from petroleum, or crude oil. Some critics will argue that eating oil is no better than eating coal. But the final products are rigorously tested to make sure they contain no traces of the original petroleum. One dye that does not have a petroleum base is Blue No. 2, or indigotine, which is a synthetic version of the plant-based indigo dye, used to color blue jeans.

Notorious for skeletonizing leaves of a wide variety of edible and ornamental plants, Japanese beetles have iridescent copper wings and a metallic-green thorax and head. Underneath they have small tufts of white hairs along the sides of their abdomens. The eggs are white or cream-colored. The slightly curved larvae, also known as grubs, are gray-white with brown heads. Read more about controlling Japanese beetles.

6. Blackcurrant

Black currants are a common fruit found in Europe.

Since blackcurrants have a sour and tart flavor, they are often sweetened prior to consumption.

Due to their availability and popular flavor, they are used as a culinary fruit in cooking – and in the development of various products.

In fact, they are one of the most commercially successful types of fruit, and it’s easy to see blackcurrant candy, juice, soda, tea, and so on.

Per 100g, blackcurrants provide a substantial amount of vitamin C here is the full macro and micronutrient profile (7)

  • Calories: 63 kcal
  • Carbohydrate: 15.4 g
  • Fiber:
  • Sugar:
  • Fat: 0.4 g
  • Protein: 1.4 g
  • Vitamin C: 201% RDA
  • Vitamin K: 25% RDA
  • Manganese: 11% RDA
  • Potassium: 9% RDA
  • Copper: 10% RDA

5. Vanessa atalanta: The Red Admiral

This very common species is one of the most-often-seen butterflies in urban areas. It has a quick and nervous flight, but it lands frequently males will often patrol areas around porches and yards in the late afternoon, returning to the same perch after each tour of the territory. This butterfly is also well-known for its habit of landing on people it evidently regards as a suitable perch.

The caterpillar of this charming butterfly feed in groups on nettles. You will sometimes find their nests in the summer, with many individuals and a whole lot of poop as well. They likely gain some protection by making this stinging plant their home.

Red admiral caterpillars are dark, with jagged yellow markings on the side. Their black spines cover most of the body, making it even more difficult for a predator to get anything more than a mouthful of prickles should they decide to attack.

Quick Facts:

  • Does it sting? No, although the spines are sharp.
  • What does it eat? Nettles.
  • Will it seriously damage plants or trees? Not usually.
  • Is it rare? No—this species is among the most common of North American butterflies.
  • What does it turn into? A pretty red and black butterfly.
  • Can you raise it to an adult? Yes, if you give it plenty of fresh leaves.

By Charles J Sharp - Own work, from Sharp Photography,, CC BY-SA 4.0, https:/

The smeared dagger moth caterpillar

Wildreturn at[email protected]/37609117606 (archive)

Plump-bodied and long-tailed, with short legs, small bill, and a head that looks particularly small in comparison to the body. The long, pointed tail is unique among North American doves.

Relative Size

Smaller, slenderer than Rock Pigeon


  • Male
    • Length: 9.1-13.4 in (23-34 cm)
    • Weight: 3.4-6.0 oz (96-170 g)
    • Wingspan: 17.7 in (45 cm)
    • Weight: 3.0-5.5 oz (86-156 g)
    • Wingspan: 17.7 in (45 cm)

    Mourning Doves often match their open-country surroundings. They’re delicate brown to buffy-tan overall, with black spots on the wings and black-bordered white tips to the tail feathers.

    Mourning Doves fly fast on powerful wingbeats, sometimes making sudden ascents, descents, and dodges, their pointed tails stretching behind them.

    You can see Mourning Doves nearly anywhere except the deep woods. Look for them in fields or patches of bare ground, or on overhead perches like telephone wires.

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